Skin Care Department

Laser Tattoo Removal

Lasers remove tattoos by breaking up the pigment colors with a high-intensity light beam.

Black tattoo pigment absorbs all laser wavelengths, making it the easiest color to treat. Other colors can only be treated by selected lasers based upon the pigment color. You should first schedule a consultation with a trained professional who can evaluate your tattoo and advise you on the process. The number of treatments you will need will depend on the age, size, and color(s) of your tattoo. The color of your skin, as well as how deep the tattoo pigment goes, will also affect the removal technique.
In general, this is what you should expect during a laser tattoo removal session:

  •   You’ll be given a pair of protective eye shields.
  •   The technician will test your skin's reaction to the laser to determine the most effective energy for treatment.
  •   The technician uses the laser to pass pulses of intense light through the top layers of your skin that will be absorbed by the tattoo pigment only. Smaller tattoos will require fewer pulses while larger ones will need more to remove them. In either case, to completely get rid of a tattoo, it will take several treatments. After each visit, your tattoo should become progressively lighter.

Laser Hair Removal

If you're not happy with shaving, tweezing, or waxing to remove unwanted hair, laser hair removal may be an option worth considering.

Laser hair removal is one of the most commonly done cosmetic procedures in the U.S. It beams highly concentrated light into hair follicles. Pigment in the follicles absorb the light. That destroys the hair.

Benefits of Laser Hair Removal

  •   Lasers are useful for removing unwanted hair from the face, leg, chin, back, arm, underarm, bikini line, and other areas.
  • Precision. Lasers can selectively target dark, coarse hairs while leaving the surrounding skin undamaged.
  • Speed. Each pulse of the laser takes a fraction of a second and can treat many hairs at the same time. The laser can treat an area approximately the size of a quarter every second. Small areas such as the upper lip can be treated in less than a minute, and large areas, such as the back or legs, may take up to an hour.Predictability. Most patients have permanent hair loss after an average of three to seven sessions.


Scabies is a common skin problem caused by tiny mites called Sarcoptes scabiei. The mites burrow into the skin, leave their feces (poop).

The female mites lay eggs in the tiny tunnels they create. This causes small itchy bumps and blisters. The itching and rash from scabies are due to a hypersensitive reaction to the mite, its feces, and its eggs.

What Are the Signs & Symptoms of Scabies? The most common symptom of scabies is itching, which usually starts before any other signs. Other symptoms of scabies include:
  •   bumps or blisters
  •  burrow tracks
  •  thickened, scaly, scratched, and scabbed skin
  •  in young children, irritability and poor feeding
  •   the hands and feet (especially the webs of skin between the fingers and toes)
  •  the inner part of the wrists and the folds under the arms
  •  waistline and groin area
  •  head and scalp of infants (rare in older children and adults)


Tinea is a contagious fungal skin infection. The most commonly affected areas include the feet, groin, scalp and beneath the breasts.

Tinea can be spread by skin-to-skin contact or indirectly through towels, clothes or floors. Tinea is also known as ringworm, which is a misleading name as no worm is involved. All fungi need warm, moist environments and tinea is no exception. This is why the hottest, most sweat-prone areas of the body are the most likely areas for a tinea infection to occur. Communal showers and locker rooms are typical places where infection may be spread. Treatment includes antifungal medication, antiperspirants and good hygiene.

Types of Tinea
  •  Athlete’s foot – tinea of the foot, known as tinea pedis
  •   Jock itch – tinea of the groin, known as tinea cruris
  •  Ringworm of the body – tinea of the body, known as tinea corporis
  •   Nail infection (onychomycosis) – tinea of the toe or finger nails, known as tinea unguium.
Symptoms of Tinea
  •  Itching and stinging
  •  Red scaly rash that is shaped like a ring (annular)
  •   Cracking, splitting and peeling in the toe web spaces
  •  Blisters
  •  Yellow or white discoloration of the nails
  •  Bald spots on the scalp

What is Psoriasis?

Psoriasis is a chronic skin disorder, which means a skin condition that doesn’t go away.

People with psoriasis have thick, pink or red patches of skin covered with white or silvery scales. The thick, scaly patches are called plaques. Psoriasis usually starts in early adulthood, though it can begin later in life.

What part of the body does psoriasis affect?

The rash can show up anywhere. In most people, it covers only a few patches of skin. In severe cases, the plaques connect and cover a large area of the body. Psoriasis can make you uncomfortable, itchy and self-conscious.

Psoriasis tends to affect the:
  •  Elbows and knees.
  •  Face, scalp and inside the mouth.
  •  Fingernails,toenails,Genitals ,Lower back,Palms and feet.

At first, you’ll see small red bumps. The bumps grow, and scales form on top. The surface scales might shed easily, but the scales beneath them will stick together. If you scratch the rash, the scales may tear away from the skin, causing bleeding. As the rash continues to grow, lesions (larger areas of damage) can form.

What are other types of psoriasis?

Plaque psoriasis is the most common type. About 80% to 90% of people with psoriasis have plaque psoriasis.

Other, less common types of psoriasis include:
  •  Inverse psoriasis appears in skin folds. It may look like thin pink plaques without scale.
  •  Guttate psoriasis may appear after a sore throat caused by a streptococcal infection. It looks like small, red, drop-shaped scaly spots in children and young adults.
  •  Pustular psoriasis has small, pus-filled bumps on top of the red patches or plaques.
  •  Sebopsoriasis typically appears on the face and scalp as red bumps and plaques with greasy yellow scale. This type is a cross between psoriasis and seborrheic dermatitis.


Vitiligo is a chronic (long-lasting) disorder that causes patches of skin to lose pigment or color.

This happens when melanocytes – skin cells that make pigment – are attacked and destroyed, causing the skin to turn a milky-white color.

There are two types of vitiligo:
  •  Nonsegmental or generalized vitiligo is the most common type. It happens when the white patches appear symmetrically on both sides of your body, such as on both hands or both knees. This type of vitiligo can have rapid loss of color or pigment and tends to cover a large area.
  •  Segmental vitiligo is much less common and happens when the white patches are only on one segment or side of your body, such as a leg, one side of the face, or arm. This type of vitiligo often begins at an early age and progresses for about 1 to 2 years and then usually stops.

Anyone can get vitiligo, and it can develop at any age. However, for many people with vitiligo, the white patches begin to appear before age 20, and can start in early childhood. Vitiligo seems to be more common in people who have a family history of the disorder or who have certain autoimmune diseases, including:

  •  Addison’s disease
  •   Pernicious Anemia
  •  Psoriasis
  •  Rheumatoid Arthritis
  •   Systemic lupus erythematosus
  •  Thyroid disease

What is Urticaria?

Urticaria – also known as hives, weals, welts or nettle rash – is a raised, itchy rash that appears on the skin.

It may appear on one part of the body or be spread across large areas. The rash is usually very itchy and ranges in size from a few millimetres to the size of a hand. Although the affected area may change in appearance within 24 hours, the rash usually settles within a few days.

Types of urticaria ?

Doctors may refer to urticaria as either:
• acute urticaria – if the rash clears completely within 6 weeks
• chronic urticaria – in rarer cases, where the rash persists or comes and goes for more than 6 weeks, often over many years
A much rarer type of urticaria, known as urticaria vasculitis, can cause blood vessels inside the skin to become inflamed. In these cases, the weals last longer than 24 hours, are more painful, and can leave a bruise.

Urticaria occurs when a trigger causes high levels of histamine and other chemical messengers to be released in the skin. These substances cause the blood vessels in the affected area of skin to open up (often resulting in redness or pinkness) and become leaky. This extra fluid in the tissues causes swelling and itchiness.
Histamine is released for many reasons, including:

  •   an allergic reaction – like a food allergy or a reaction to an insect bite or sting
  •   cold or heat exposure
  •   infection – such as a cold
  •   certain medications – like non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) or antibiotics
  • However, in many cases of urticaria, no obvious cause can be found. Some cases of long-term urticaria may be caused by the immune system mistakenly attacking healthy tissue. However, this is difficult to diagnose and the treatment options are the same.

What is Lichen Planus?

Lichen planus is a skin rash triggered by the immune system.

It’s not currently known why this immune response occurs.There may be several contributing factors, and each case is different. Potential causes include:

  • viral infections
  • allergens
  • stress
  • genetics

Sometimes lichen planus occurs along with autoimmune disorders. While it may be uncomfortable, in most cases lichen planus is not a serious condition. It’s also not contagious. However, there are some rare variations of the condition that may be serious and painful. These variations can be treated with topical and oral medications to reduce symptoms, or by using drugs that suppress the immune system.

  •   purplish-colored lesions or bumps with flat tops on your skin or genitals
  •   lesions that develop and spread over the body for several weeks or a few months
  •  itching at the site of the rash, which commonly appears on the wrists, lower back, and ankles
  •  lacy-white lesions in the mouth, which may be painful or cause a burning sensation
  •  blisters, which burst and become scabby
  •  thin white lines over the rash
Lichen planus causes

Lichen planus develops when your body attacks your skin or mucous membrane cells by mistake. Doctors aren’t sure why this happens, but there’s evidence genes and environmental factors may play a role.

What is molluscum contagiosum?

Molluscum contagiosum mainly affects infants and young children under the age of 10 years. It is more prevalent in warm climates than cool ones, and in overcrowded environments.

Adolescents and adults are less often infected. Molluscum contagiosum tends to be more numerous and last longer in children who also have atopic dermatitis, due to deficiencies in the skin barrier. It can be very extensive and troublesome in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection or that have other reasons for poor immune function.

What causes molluscum contagiosum?
  •  Direct skin-to-skin contact
  •  Indirect contact via shared towels or other items
  •  Auto-inoculation into another site by scratching or shaving
  •  Sexual transmission in adults.
  •  Secondary bacterial infection from scratching (impetigo)
  •  Conjunctivitis when the eyelid is infected
  •  Disseminated secondary eczema; this represents an immunological reaction or 'id' to the virus
  •  Numerous and widespread molluscum contagiosum that are larger than usual may occur in immune-deficient patients (such as uncontrolled HIV infection or in patients on immune suppressing drugs), and often affect the face
  •  Spontaneous, pitted scarring
  •   Scarring may be spontaneous or due to surgical treatment
    How is molluscum contagiosum diagnosed?

    Molluscum contagiosum is usually recognised by its characteristic clinical appearance or on dermatoscopy. White molluscum bodies can often be expressed from the centre of the papules. Sometimes, the diagnosis is made on skin biopsy. Histopathology shows characteristic intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies.


Impetigo (im-pa-TIE-go) is an itchy, sometimes painful, skin infection.

Who gets impetigo?

Impetigo usually happens to children between ages 2 and 6. Older children and adults can also get it.
You may also be at higher risk if you:

  •  Live in a tropical climate, with hot, humid summers and mild winters.
  •   Have a scabies infection.
  •  Do activities or sports where cuts and scrapes are common.
  •  Live in close contact or crowded situations. Infections often happen to people living in the same house or children in day care.
  • Where does impetigo occur?

    Typically, the first signs of impetigo are sores and blisters on the mouth and nose. Impetigo can also appear on the legs and arms.

When you get a cut, bite or scratch that opens the skin, bacteria can enter and cause an impetigo infection. But impetigo can infect the skin even if it’s not broken or punctured. Impetigo happens more often in warmer months when children are outside more.

What is bullous impetigo?

Bullous impetigo is a rare type of impetigo. It has larger blisters that don’t break open as easily. It often appears on the neck, torso, armpits or groin.

What causes impetigo?

The main cause of impetigo is a bacterial infection. The bacteria usually enters the skin through a cut, scrape, rash or insect bite. Most of the time, the cause is the Staphylococcus aureus (“staph” bacteria). Sometimes, group A Streptococcus bacteria can cause it. This type of bacteria also leads to strep throat and fever. Certain strains of strep bacteria that cause impetigo can also cause glomerulonephritis. This inflammatory kidney disease can produce high blood pressure and blood in the urine.


Acne is a very common skin condition that causes pimples mostly on the face, forehead, chest, shoulders and upper back.

There are a variety of causes including genetics, fluctuating hormone levels, stress, high humidity and using oily or greasy personal care products. Acne commonly affects teenagers but can occur at any age.

What is acne?

Acne is a common skin condition where the pores of your skin become blocked by hair, sebum (an oily substance), bacteria and dead skin cells. Those blockages produce blackheads, whiteheads, nodules and other types of pimples. If you have acne, know you’re not alone. It’s the most common skin condition that people experience. It’s estimated that 80% of people ages 11 to 30 will have at least a mild form of acne, and most people are affected by it at some point in their lives.

  •   Blackheads: Open bumps on the skin that fill with excess oil and dead skin. They look as if dirt has deposited in the bump, but the dark spots are actually caused by an irregular light reflection off the clogged follicle.
  •   Whiteheads: Bumps that remain closed by oil and dead skin.
  •  Papules: Small red or pink bumps that become inflamed.
  •  Pustules: Pimples containing pus. They look like whiteheads surrounded by red rings. They can cause scarring if picked or scratched.
  •   Fungal acne (pityrosporum folliculitis): This type occurs when an excess of yeast develops in the hair follicles. They can become itchy and inflamed.
  •  Nodules: Solid pimples that are deep in your skin. They are large and painful.
  •  Cysts: Pus-filled pimples. These can cause scars.

What is PIH?

Pre-eclampsia is a serious condition that can occur during pregnancy where there is high blood pressure and increased protein in the urine.

Although most cases of pre-eclampsia are mild and cause no trouble, the condition can get worse and be serious for both mother and baby. It can cause fits (seizures) in the mother, which is called 'eclampsia', and can affect the baby’s growth. It is life-threatening for mother and baby if left untreated. Women can have pre-eclampsia and have no symptoms. It is therefore vital to have regular antenatal checks of blood pressure and urine to detect the condition before it becomes dangerous for mother and baby. If you have an antenatal appointment that you can’t attend, it is important to reschedule it. Pre-eclampsia is sometimes called pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH), pre-eclamptic toxemia or hypertensive disease of pregnancy.

Get medical help immediately if you are pregnant and you have severe abdominal pain, headache, dizziness, vision problems, confusion, nausea or vomiting, or if you experience a seizure, sudden swelling in your hands, ankles or face, trouble speaking, numbness or sudden and rapid weight gain.

Pre-eclampsia can occur at any time during pregnancy, and up to 6 weeks after birth. It is most common after 20 weeks of pregnancy and in first pregnancies. It can develop gradually over many weeks, or come on suddenly over a few hours. Early symptoms The first signs of pre-eclampsia are a sudden rise in blood pressure (hypertension) and protein in the urine. You probably won't notice these symptoms, but your doctor should pick them up during your antenatal appointments. Progressive symptoms

As pre-eclampsia develops, it can cause fluid retention (oedema), which often causes sudden swelling of the feet, ankles, face and hands. Oedema is another common symptom of pregnancy, but it tends to be in the lower parts of the body, such as the feet and ankles. It will gradually build up during the day. If the swelling is sudden, and it particularly affects the face and hands, it could be pre-eclampsia.

What is Atopic Dermatitis?

Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic skin condition characterized by patches of dry, inflamed, and itchy skin.

The exact cause of AD isn’t well understood. One factor may be an overproduction of cells in your immune system that promote inflammation. AD often starts in childhood and tends to flare up periodically. During flare-ups, people with AD often scratch the affected area. Currently, there’s no cure for AD. Treatment involves avoiding triggers, making lifestyle changes, and taking medications to ease symptoms. Keep reading to learn more about AD, including what it looks like, causes, treatments, and potential complications.

Atopic Dermatitis vs. Eczema

AD is often called eczema, a word that refers to a broader group of skin conditions. “Dermatitis” relates to conditions of the skin and “atopic” refers to diseases caused by allergic reactions. As an atopic disease, AD falls under the same classification as:

  •  Food Allergies, Hay Fever, Asthma

All types of eczema cause itchiness and redness, but AD is the most severe and chronic. Other types of eczema include:

  •  Hand eczema. Hand eczema affects only your hands and is often caused by frequent contact with irritating chemicals.
  •  Contact dermatitis. Contact dermatitis is skin irritation caused by contact with certain irritants.
  •  Dyshidrotic eczema. Dyshidrotic eczema is a type of eczema that develops only on your fingers, your palms, and the soles of your feet.
  •  Neurodermatitis (lichenification). Neurodermatitis is characterized by thickened patches of skin due to repeated rubbing or scratching.
  •  Nummular eczema. Nummular eczema is a chronic condition that causes spots about the size of coins that are often itchy.
  •   Stasis dermatitis. Stasis dermatitis is a type of skin irritation that develops in people with poor circulation, typically in the lower legs.

Doctors and researchers are working to better understand how eczema works and why it affects so many people. There’s currently no known cure for this common condition.

Contact Dermatitis

Have you ever used a new type of skin care product or detergent, only to have your skin become red and irritated?

If so, you may have experienced contact dermatitis. This condition occurs when chemicals you come into contact with cause a reaction. Most contact dermatitis reactions aren’t severe, but they can be unpleasant until the itching goes away. What are the symptoms of contact dermatitis? Contact dermatitis symptoms depend on the cause and how sensitive you are to the substance.

Allergic contact dermatitis Symptoms associated with allergic contact dermatitis include:
  •  Dry, Scaly, flaky skin
  •  Hives
  •  Oozing Blisters
  •  Skin that appears darkened
  •  skin redness
  •  skin that burns
  •  extreme itching
  •  Sun sensitivity
  •  Blistering
  •  Cracking skin due to extreme dryness
  •  skin that feels stiff or tight
  •  ulcerations
  •  open sores that form crusts


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