Your hip is a ball-and-socket joint where the thighbone or femur (ball) meets the pelvis (socket). This joint is surrounded by cartilage, muscles, and ligaments that allow it to move smoothly. The cartilage is a smooth, shock-absorbing layer that covers the bones and allows the ball to glide easily inside the socket. The muscles around the joint support your weight and help move the joint smoothly so that you can walk without pain.
Arthritis of the joint is the most common reason for a hip replacement. Arthritis damages the cartilage which no longer serves as a cushion and exposes the underlying bone. This causes roughening of the bones and they rub together like sandpaper. The ball grinds in the socket when you move your leg, causing pain, stiffness and immobility. The affected leg may become shortened, muscles may become weaker and a limp may develop. The above image shows a normal hip joint in comparison to a degenerated hip joint. There are numerous conditions that can cause Arthritis and often the exact cause is never known.
- Childhood disorders e.g., dislocated hip etc.
- Growth abnormalities of the hip, such as shallow socket, may lead to premature arthritis.
- Trauma (fracture)
- Increased stress e.g., overuse, overweight, etc.
- Avascular necrosis (loss of blood supply)
- Connective tissue disorders
- Inflammation e.g., Rheumatoid arthritis
Total Hip Replacement (THR) or Total Hip Arthroplasty is an operation to replace the worn or damaged parts of your hip joint. The surfaces of the diseased joint are removed and replaced with a mechanical, artificial joint called prosthesis. This surgery can relieve the pain and stiffness in your hip joint. Your new hip prosthesis has femur and pelvic parts made from metals and plastics. The cup replaces the worn hip socket of your pelvis. The ball replaces the worn end of your thigh bone (femur). The ball is attached to a stem that fits into your femur. The cup and stem are sometimes cemented in place with a special bone cement, or the metals may have a porous surface that bone will grow into and create a tight fit. The prosthesis can last 10 to 15 years. However, over time it may become worn and loose and a replacement (revision) of the hip may be required A hip replacement is a mechanical device with parts that are assembled before and during the operation, most commonly referred to as a "ball and socket." After surgery, the prosthetic ball and socket restore movement in the hip during the life-span of the prosthesis. Current surgical techniques and hip replacement implants provide excellent clinical results and predictable long-term outcomes. However, over time the original components of a Total Hip Replacement (THR) can break down and loosen from the bone surface they were once firmly attached. Revision Hip Replacement, also known as Revision Total Hip Arthroplasty, involves the exchange of some or all worn components with new ones. The degree of complexity for this procedure is dependent on the amount of loosening and associated damage to the underlying bone surfaces that may have occurred over time. Specialized components, bone graft and cement may be used to rebuild the hip joint. Dr. Pankaj Jain will compare a series of your x-rays taken over many years to observe changes in implant position or the condition of the surrounding bone. Based on these factors, he will decide with you if a revision surgery is necessary.